Alamosa is located at 37°28′N 105°52′W / 37.467°N 105.867°W / 37.467; -105.867 (37.469, −105.874), at the junction of U.S. Routes 160 and 285. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles (14.3 km), of which 5.4 square miles (14.0 km) is land and 0.12 square miles (0.3 km), or 2.26%, is water.
Alamosa is located along the Rio Grande in the San Luis Valley, in the highest general agricultural land in the United States. Elevation is about 7,544 feet (2,299 m) in Alamosa with peaks over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) within 23 miles (37 km) of town in the Sangre de Cristo Range.
Alamosa is the gateway city to the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve.
According to city-data.com from 2014 there were 9,531 people, 2,974 households, and 1,769 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,995.0 people per square mile (770.3/km²). There were 3,215 housing units at an average density of 805.8 per square mile (311.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 44.5% White, 2.6% Black or African American, 2.20% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 1.3% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, and 0.9% from two or more races. 49.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 2,974 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.5% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 21.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,593, and the median income for a family was $33,017. Males had a median income of $27,100 versus $22,671 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,405. About 18.1% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.4% of those under age 18 and 17.0% of those age 65 or over.